The big idea
"Constructed-response answer" is the newfangled term for what we used to call a "short-answer essay question." All it means is that you're going to answer the question in one well-written paragraph. If you follow these guidelines, your answers should generally be complete enough to make your teacher happy.
How to do it
Here are the parts you need to include in a constructed-response answer:
Don't just copy the question; restate the question in your answer. If the question is "What important things do we learn about the character of Charlie in the story?" your answer will begin with something like "The important things we learn about the character of Charlie are..."
Answer all parts of the question.
(Note that the restatement and answer can, if you do it right, be your topic sentence.)
Cite the proof for your answer. Find a quote that proves what you're trying to say. Begin with a phrase like, "As it says in..." and say where you got your information. REMEMBER: you need to put quotation marks around any quote you use!
This is where you're going to explain your choice of quote. Why, of all the sentences that are written in the book or article you used, did you choose the sentence you chose? What is this quote showing the reader that helps to make your point? Begin your analysis with the phrase, "This shows that..." Then tell us what it shows.
Briefly restate your topic sentence. Begin with a standard conclusion phrase: "In conclusion..." or "As you can see..."
What important information do we learn about Charlie and his family in chapters 1-5? Use quotes to prove your point.
We learn many important things about Charlie in the first five chapters of Charlie and the Chocolate Factory by Roald Dahl, including the fact that his family is poor. As it says in chapter one, "There wasn't any question of them being able to buy a better house--or even one more bed to sleep in. They were far too poor for that." This shows that the family doesn't have enough money to spend on two beds for the two sets of grandparents. In conclusion, this is one of the important pieces of information we learn about Charlie and his family.